U.S. government enforcement measures have increased significantly since 1999, when the U.S. State Department retook satellite export rules.  Since 1999, the U.S. State Department has issued 29 approval agreements (agreements reached by parties accused of ITAR violations).  This corresponds to 12 approval contracts in the previous 22 years.  The importance of ITAR has also increased, as the impact on foreign parties handling USML articles has been better understood (see “controversy” below). Research that does not meet the criteria of “basic research” should not include foreign persons without an export licence; However, research activities considered fundamental may generally involve foreign persons, even when they involve the design and construction of defence articles, since the U.S. State Department has considered such research activities to be outside the jurisdiction of a training activity that would constitute the illegal export of a “defence service.”  The need to make this distinction has led many U.S.
research universities to adopt ITAR compliance policies and programs. These measures can be very different; For example, MIT notes that “the intent of ITAR is that on-campus research, without publication or participation restrictions, be basic research from creation to publication, as long as the intention is to publish the results” while Stanford University takes a more nuanced and restrictive approach to research with defence articles.  The impact of ITAR`s tightening regulation has also reduced America`s global market share in satellite technology from 83 percent to 50 percent in 2008, reports The Economist, citing a Space Review report.  In early 2013, legislation was passed to allow the removal of satellite technology from ITAR regulations.  The retro-transfer prohibition stems from the requirement that all export authorizations contain the indication that “[d] technical data or defence services exported from the United States to promote this agreement and any defence article that may be manufactured or manufactured from such technical data or defence services may not be transferred to a person in a third country or to a third country national except if the Department of Foreign Affairs has obtained prior written authorization.  International Trade Minister Liz Truss today reached an agreement on a continuity agreement with Canada`s “friend and ally.”